A Global Commodity


Fellow Toastmasters and honored guests, for my seventh speech in the Competent Commmunicator manual, I wanted to talk with you all about a particular substance. This substance is comprised of over 800 chemical compounds and for thousands of years has been traded globally, in some cases used as currency, in some countries it was once only accessible to the wealthy and powerful and today helps to provide income for developing countries. By a show of hands, how many of you think I might be talking about gold? Silver? Rubies?

Would it surprise you to know that I am talking about CHOCOLATE? Now, research states that approximately 65% of you are probably right now thinking “Mmmmm… milk chocolate”, while 33% of you are thinking “Mmmmmm… dark chocolate” and 48% of you are thinking “Ew! Chocolate?” That doesn’t account for approximately 2% you who are, right now, thinking “Ack! Allergies!”

photo by The U.S. National Archives via PhotoRee

No matter how you feel about this smooth, velvety, versatile, melt-in-your-mouth confection (and, yes, I am a chocolate fan), you have to admit that the very word “chocolate’ instantly brings up connotations both epicuran and societal for nearly everyone. You’ve heard of waiting for Godot? Most of us are waiting for Godiva!

Chocolate is a $17 billion industry in the United States. The average American eats 10-12 POUNDS of the stuff per year, and if you think that’s a lot, consider that the Swiss consume 21 pounds of chocolate on an annual basis.

When I was doing my research for this speech, I noticed that chocolate was listed in several sources a drug, yet it is low in caffeine, non addictive, and has no negative side effects when taken in moderation. In fact, medical studies show that eating dark chocolate daily may promote cardiovascular health. It’s been known to have emotional and psychological benefits as well – consuming an ounce of chocolate increased the production of serotonins, a natural anti-depressant. What other drug can make those claims?

Chocolate is ubiquitous in our society, particularly on holidays such as Christmas, Mothers Day and, oh yeah, Easter. But how did it come to be so beloved?

Cacao was discovered 2,000 years ago in ancient Mesoamerica. The first known users of it were the Classic Period Maya (about 250-900 AD), who crushed the cacao bean and drank it mixed with various spices. Sugar was unavailable, so this was a bitter concoction that was particularly popular during royal and religious events. Additionally, priests during this era would present cacao seeds to the gods as a sacred offering. The Aztecs used it as a form of currency.

Around 1521, Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico and discovered chocolate. The Conquistadors forced the Aztecs to hand over their chocolate and brought the mysterious bean back to Spain. Simply put, it was a hit. Between 1759 and 1788 almost 12 million pounds of chocolate were consumed each year in Madrid alone. The demand for chocolate in Spain was so great once introduced that, from the early 1600s to the late 1800s, Mesoamerican slaves tended, harvested and processed cacao.

Now, while chocolate had been a drink for the people in the Americas, in Spain it was only available to the wealthy and to church officials. The Spanish Catholic Church recognized chocolate’s energizing properties. Hernan Cortes was known to have said: “A cup of this precious drink permits a man to walk for a whole day without food.” Priests were permitted by the 16th century to use liquid chocolate as a meal replacement during fasting periods.

By 1750, the chocolate craze had spread throughout the rest of Europe. As in Spain, only the wealthy could afford to eat and/or drink it. In France, you had to be a member of the Aristocracy. Chocolate continued to be grown and harvested by slaves overseas and it was pricey to produce.

Eventually, however, chocolate became more affordable, thanks in huge part to the Industrial Revolution, which made it possible to mass-produce chocolate. It is now a truly global commodity, available to all, and is produced in 33 countries. Today, thanks to organizations such as Oxfam, farmers in developing countries are able to make a better living growing chocolate which is sold on the fair trade market.

Today, chocolate is a food for all, and hundreds of manufacturers produce hundreds of brands of candy bars and other foods containing cacao. It’s frequently named as a favorite flavor in the U.S. and elsewhere.

The health benefits of cocoa are still being researched, but new evidence is found frequently that dark chocolate, with its high concentration of flavanoids, can help to fend off cardiovascular disease and other age-related illnesses.

By now, you guys probably know that I like to think a little outside the box, so in that vein [pulls cake out of box], I have to let you know that one of my personal favorite uses of chocolate is in chocolate birthday cake. [candles are on cake in reverse] Apparently, I’m 73 today… Do I look good for my age? Maybe it’s the flavanoids!

Madam Toastmaster…

Bibliography

http://www.familyresource.com/lifestyles/cooking/interesting-chocolate-statistics
http://www.seventypercent.com/
http://www.fmnh.org/chocolate/history.html
http://pubs.acs.org/cen/whatstuff/stuff/7849sci5.html

Advertisements

Watch Your Language


Good evening, fellow Toastmasters and honored guests! In the summer of 2001, I had the opportunity to go to Europe for the first time with my husband. We were on our honeymoon and spent three weeks traveling through a few different countries.

photo by eqqman via PhotoRee

We were nearing the end of our trip and were in Lille, a city about 2 hours north of Paris. We were walking around town one day when we decided to find a place to eat. We happened on a Thai restaurant. Now, I have to tell you, Steve and I love Thai food and we were thrilled to find it in France. He had learned to speak Thai in college while managing a Thai restaurant in Seattle and had even lived in Bangkok for a while. We decided it sounded good.

We got into the restaurant and took a look at the menu. Now, neither of us spoke much French. My husband knew how to pronounce a few words here and there, and all I knew how to say in French is – and who knows whether I’m pronouncing this correctly – “Je suis desolee; je nais pas parle francais”, which means “I’m terribly sorry, but I don’t speak French”.

The fact that he and I both were, at the time, mostly vegetarian and that the menu consisted of items from a Southeast Asian country added layers of complexity. I latched onto the word ‘champignons’ and I remember leaning over and saying to him “I think that means ‘mushrooms’!” The rest of the menu we weren’t quite sure about.

Just then, my husband turned to our server, who we figured out later was a French citizen but originally from China, and said “Parlez-vous thai?

That was apparently NOT the correct way to ask her whether she spoke Thai. She ran into the back of the restaurant and for the next several minutes, we could hear her screaming at someone who was back there “Parlez-vous thai?? Parlez-vous thai?!?“ Turned out she didn’t speak English. My best guess is that we offended her, by asking her what we asked her, in the way that we asked her. To put it simply, we used the wrong words.

Fellow Toastmasters, last week, my colleague Chris spoke about how only 7% of communication consists of the words we say. I don’t disagree with that; in fact, I agree completely. But I will tell you that words matter.

One of my favorite portions of Toastmasters is the Word of the Day, and I relish the opportunity to learn words that not only stretch my vocabulary but that may be better suited for the point I’m trying to get across. Yes, you should always use the shortest word possible to convey your meaning. Why say ‘diminuitive’ when ‘small’ will do? But on the other hand, why say ‘small’ when ‘petite’ is a more descriptive, more interesting word? While we were in France, my husband and I saw artwork produced by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. He was one of the most important artists of the Impressionist period, and depending upon who you ask, he was also somewhere between 4’11” and 5’1”. Given his enormous contribution to the art world, would you describe him as “small” or “petite”? Words matter.

Words are powerful when it comes to relationships. Remember the old saying “sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will never hurt me?” Nothing could be farther from the truth. There is an old Chinese proverb, which says “Kind words can warm for three winters, while harsh words can chill even in the heat of summer.” Ask anyone whose been called a name or a racial epithet. Or cursed at in the heat of anger.

On the topic of swearing, statistics report – and I can personally attest – that cursing at work is common. That said, a survey conducted by theladders.com, an online marketplace for executive job opportunites, lists swearing as the most common fireable, etiquette-related workplace offense, beating out excessive gossip, too many personal phone calls and even drinking on the job. In fact, more than 80% of the managers and supervisors responding to the survey find using foul language at work to be unprofessional. They can and do discipline their employees for using at work, and, according to the same survey, 6% of them have terminated over it. A couple of weeks ago, I spoke about bullying in the workplace and, in fact, directing such language at a direct report is considered hostile and a sign that you are a bully. To me, personally, it also shows a lack of respect and a narrow vocabulary. Think of a different way to vent your frustrations and retain your professional composure. Words matter.

As long as written language has been around, the words we use and the way in which we use them is of utmost importance. Without facial expressions, vocal inflections or body language available to someone reading a scroll or – in today’s world – an email, all meaning must be inferred from the words the author used. I am reminded of this whenever I send out an email at work that informs the organization of an issue on our systems. If I use the wrong words, I risk confusing everyone, from a call center representative right on up to the CEO, and service takes a hit. Words matter.

If I had the chance to revisit that Thai restaurant in Lille, knowing what I know now, I would go back. Armed with the knowledge I now have that “Avez-vous parler le thaï” is probably a better way to ask the question we tried to ask, I suspect things would go a lot more smoothly and I’d be happily devouring my pad thai with a minimum of hassle.

Words matter.

Madam Toastmaster…